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Vernier discount 160 mg super p-force oral jelly mastercard, P 160mg super p-force oral jelly with mastercard, Cardinaud, B, Valdenaire, O, Philippe, H and Vincent, J-D (1995) An evolutionary view of drug±receptor interaction: the bioamine receptor family. Edited by Roy Webster Copyright & 2001 John Wiley & Sons Ltd ISBN: Hardback 0-471-97819-1 Paperback 0-471-98586-4 Electronic 0-470-84657-7 4 eurotransm itter Release S. STANFORD INTRODUCTION Release of transmitter from a neuron is triggered by the arrival of a propagated nerve impulse at its terminals. This wave of excitation causes the opening of voltage-gated Ca2‡-channels or mobilisation of Ca2‡ from intracellular stores (e. As a result, there is a phasic increase in free intracellular Ca2‡, probably to a concentration of about 0. The subsequent fusion of neurotransmitter storage vesicles with the axolemma, together with the extrusion of their contents into the synapse, is thought to take about 100±200 ms; this cascade is therefore fast enough to effect rapid signalling between neurons. While this chapter is concerned primarily with the neurochemical mechanisms which bring about and control impulse-evoked release of neurotransmitter, some of the methods used to measure transmitter release are described first. This is because important findings have emerged from studies of the effects of nerve stimulation on gross changes in transmitter release and intraneuronal stores. The actual processes that link neuronal excitation and release of transmitter from nerve terminals have been studied only relatively recently. The neurochemical basis of this stimulus±secretion coupling, which is still not fully understood, is described next. The final sections will deal with evidence that, under certain conditions, appreciable amounts of transmitter can be released through Ca2‡-independent mechanisms which do not depend on neuronal activation. MEASUREMENT OF TRANSMITTER RELEASE ESTIMATION OF TRANSMITTER TURNOVER EX VIVO Until the development of sensitive assays and sophisticated collection techniques, release studies relied on measuring changes in the concentration of neurotransmitters in whole organs, or dissected brain regions, following nerve stimulation. However, under resting conditions, the transmitter content of any given organ or brain region is remarkably constant. The store of classical transmitters (monoamines and acetylcho- line)in nerve terminals is rarely depleted by physiologically relevant rates of neuronal stimulation. This suggests that transmitter synthesis normally keeps pace with release.

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