By A. Ateras. Simpson College, Indianola Iowa. 2017.
Dynamic aphasia may be conceptualized as a variant of transcortical motor aphasia purchase 100mg tenormin overnight delivery, and may be seen with lesions of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (“frontal aphasia”) purchase 100mg tenormin with mastercard. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003: 165-174 Esmonde T, Giles E, Xuereb J, Hodges J. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 1996; 60: 403-410 Robinson G, Blair J, Cipolotti L. Dynamic aphasia: an inability to select between competing verbal responses. Brain 1998; 121: 77-89 Cross References Echolalia; Transcortical aphasias - 99 - D Dysarthria Dysarthria Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder of neurological origin (cf. There are various syndromes of dysarthria, which have been clas- sified as follows: ● Flaccid or nasal dysarthria: hypernasal, breathy, whining output, as in bulbar palsy, myasthenia gravis. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002: 236-243 Murdoch BE (ed. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes, 1998 Cross References Anarthria; Aphasia; Asynergia; Broca’s aphasia; Bulbar palsy; Coprolalia; Dysphonia; Fatigue; Lower motor neurone (LMN) Syndrome; Parkinsonism; Pseudobulbar palsy; Scanning speech; Upper motor neurone (UMN) syndrome Dyscalculia - see ACALCULIA - 100 - Dysexecutive Syndrome D Dyschromatopsia - see ACHROMATOPSIA Dysdiadochokinesia Dysdiadochokinesia or adiadochokinesia is a difficulty in performing rapid alternating movements, for example pronation/supination of the arms, tapping alternately with the palm and dorsum of the hand, tap- ping the foot on the floor. Dysdiadochokinesia is a sign of cerebellar dysfunction, especially hemisphere disease, and may be seen in association with asynergia, ataxia, dysmetria, and excessive rebound phenomenon. It may reflect the impaired checking response seen in cerebellar disease. Dysdiadochokinesia may also be seen with disease of the frontal lobes or basal ganglia. Cross References Asynergia; Ataxia; Cerebellar syndromes; Dysmetria; Rebound phenomenon Dysesthesia Dysesthesia is an unpleasant, abnormal or unfamiliar, sensation, often with a burning and/or “electrical” quality. Some authorities reserve the term for provoked positive sensory phenomena, as opposed to sponta- neous sensations (paresthesia).
If it is not possible to befriend a member of the community buy tenormin 50mg online, you may have to approach the person or committee in charge generic tenormin 100mg fast delivery, ﬁrstly by letter and then in person. First impressions are important and you need to make sure that you dress and act appropriately within the community. Some people will be suspicious of the motives of a researcher, especially if they’re not familiar with the research process. In the early stages it is better to answer any questions or suspicions directly and honestly rather HOW TO CARRY OUT PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION/ 103 than try to avoid them or shrug them oﬀ. ETHICS Because of the nature of participant observation, there tends to be more issues involving ethics and morals to consider. As you intend to become part of a speciﬁc group, will you be expected to undertake anything illegal? This could happen with research into drug use or crime syndicates where people may not trust you until you be- come one of them and join in their activities. Would you be prepared to do this and put up with any consequences which could arise as a result of your activities? If the group is suspicious, do you intend to be completely honest about who you are and what you’re doing? How would you deal with any problems which may arise as a conse- quence of your deception? What if your participation within a group causes pro- blems, anxiety or argument amongst other members? Would you be prepared to withdraw and ruin all your hard work for the sake of your informants? Also, there are many personal considerations and dilemmas which you need to think about before undertaking participant obser- vation, as illustrated below: 104 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS PERSONAL CONSIDERATIONS WHEN ENTERING THE FIELD Some people will not accept you. Are you prepared to spend many months studying others and not indulging in talk about yourself? Some researchers overcome this problem by making sure that they have someone outside the community who they can talk to if they need to.
In the past 50 mg tenormin sale, public concerns about the damaging consequences of alcohol excess for the individual and society were expressed in the 46 THE REGULATION OF LIFESTYLE temperance movement order tenormin 50mg visa. Closely aligned with evangelical Christian- ity, temperance campaigners regarded drunkenness as a moral failure and presented abstinence as the route to personal redemp- tion. The anti-alcohol initiatives of the past decade have revived the puritanical spirit of the temperance movement, but in a modern, medicalised, form. Alcohol dependency is now regarded as a disease, though one affecting a growing proportion of the population. Whereas the old temperance movement was dedicated to rescu- ing the ‘habitual drunk’, the medical temperance movement shifted the focus of attention, first from the ‘alcoholic’ to the ‘problem drinker’, and then to the whole of society. The key to this transition was the adoption of the system of calculating alcohol consumption by units. In 1979 the Royal College of Psychiatrists first indicated that a weekly consumption of more than 56 units of alcohol was the ‘absolute upper limit’. In 1984 the Health Education Council suggested that weekly levels of between 21 and 36 units for men, and 14 and 24 units for women, would be ‘unlikely to cause damage’. Then in the late 1980s a new consensus emerged from the royal colleges and other medical bodies, setting the upper limits at 21 for men and 14 for women that have been the basis of most subsequent guidelines (RCPsych 1986; RCGP 1988; RCP 1987; Medical Council on Alcoholism 1987). Three things are worth noting about the process of quantifying alcohol consumption. The first is its arbitrary character: there is no strong scientific evidence for any of these figures, which are simply based on extrapolating from studies relating levels of alcohol consumption to manifestations of disease among heavy drinkers to the rest of society. The second is the trend for the limits to become tighter, a trend more related to the increasing sobriety of the wider political climate than to the emergence of epidemiological evidence justifying a more abstemious policy. The third is that, according to the 21/14 criteria, more than a quarter of men and more than one in ten women in Britain are drinking excessively.