By Y. Jerek. University of Massachusetts at Amherst. 2017.

Muscle Anatomy All the muscle fibers are combined into motor units generic 100mg prometrium overnight delivery, which are structured to make whole single muscle units generic prometrium 100 mg with amex. The individual muscle fibers can be anatom- ically combined to make an individual muscle with varying degrees of fiber orientation. The fibers may be oriented with a pennation angle relative to the tendon, or the fibers may be aligned straight with the line of action of the ten- don (Figure 7. An example of a bipennate orientation is the deltoid muscle or gluteus muscle. A unipennate structure is most common in other muscles of the lower extremity. The pennation angle is another way in which the force is increased, but it works over a shorter distance. For a few muscles, the pen- nation angle is important in considering the amount of muscle force gener- ation, but for most muscles that cause problems in children with CP, there is no need to worry about the pennation angle because it is small and has rel- atively little effect. The muscle can generate force while it shortens, while it lengthens, or while its length is static. The mechanism of force generation is the same for all situations and involves an all-or-none response by many mo- tor units within the muscle. However, for example, if the same 100 motor units contract, the amount of energy required is very different depending on the effect in the muscle. A concentric contraction, in which the muscle is shortening and doing positive work, has the highest energy demand. Eccen- tric contraction, in which the muscle is lengthening and doing negative work or absorbing power, requires three to nine times less energy than a concentric contraction. Isometric contraction uses an intermediate amount of energy. Mus- cles that decelerate, or act as shock absorbers or transfer energy, are eccen- tric acting muscles in which power is absorbed. Isometric muscle contraction predominantly works to stabilize a joint or to help with postural stability. Muscle Length–Tension Relationship (Blix Curve) Another important aspect of a muscle’s ability to generate force is the length position in which the muscle fiber is stimulated relative to its resting length.

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