By H. Jorn. Lake Superior State University. 2017.

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The LSO as a System of ILD Maps Complex sounds typically consist of multiple frequency components mixed together buy 30gm himcolin with visa. Often di¤erent sets of frequency components originate from di¤erent locations in space order himcolin 30 gm with visa. The LSO of all mammals is tonotopically organized with regard to its inputs, outputs, and electrophysiological response properties. As described earlier, the popu- lation of LSO neurons is relatively homogeneous; nevertheless, individual LSO neurons have dynamic ranges that span somewhat di¤erent ranges of ILDs, corre- sponding to di¤erent regions of azimuthal space. Although it has not been demon- strated conclusively, it is likely that each isofrequency sheet within the LSO contains neurons with di¤erent ILD functions, so that the population activity within an isofre- quency sheet would provide an accurate estimate of the azimuthal location of the source of that frequency component, which could then be compared with popula- tion activity in other isofrequency sheets to ultimately provide a profile of which fre- quencies belong together. The VNLLc and LSO are both relatively easy to characterize in terms of tasks that their constituent neurons might perform together as a population. For a nonhomoge- neous structure such as the IC, where there is a large amount of convergent input from other structures as well as large numbers of interneurons, the tasks that they perform are not as easy to characterize. The IC as an Integrative Center The IC receives ascending input from virtually every one of the lower brainstem au- ditory nuclei as well as descending input from the auditory cortex, crossed input from the opposite IC, and internal connections from other neurons within the IC. It also receives input from motor-related structures such as the substantia nigra and globus pallidus. The dendrites of some of its neurons are confined to an isofrequency sheet, whereas the dendrites of other neurons span many frequency sheets. The main out- puts of the IC are to the thalamocortical system and motor-related systems, including Brain Parts on Multiple Scales 85 the superior colliculus and cerebellum, via the pontine gray (for a detailed review of IC connections, see Covey and Casseday, 1996; Casseday et al. Because of the structural and connectional complexity of the IC, it is di‰cult to assign it a single function on either a specific or a global level. Because the time scale of the fine structure of auditory stimuli is on the order of a millisecond or so, this means that IC neurons integrate information about fine structure over a time window that is roughly com- parable to the rate at which motor activity occurs. For speech sounds, for example, the integration performed by IC neurons could accomplish the transition from anal- ysis of fine structure to analysis on the time scale of phonemes, syllables, or even words. There is considerable evidence that certain populations of IC neurons are selective for sound features that are behaviorally relevant to the species.

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