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During the 1970s order 400mg levitra plus with mastercard, there was a Qigong cheap levitra plus 400 mg with mastercard, one of the oldest systems that may be considered surge of interest in martial arts in America, due to several a martial art, is believed by some historians to be 5,000 popular television shows and the charismatic actor Bruce years old or older, originating in ancient China. Today, there are a Buddhist monk from India named Bodhidharma brought martial arts schools all across America, and martial arts 1294 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 are a multi-billion dollar industry. Martial arts are a popu- plimentary principles of the universe, which are always lar activity for self-defense, sport, exercise, spirituality, interacting, opposing, and influencing each other. Present-day forms of martial associated with such qualities as cold, passivity, dark- arts include kalarippayattu in southern India, escrima in ness, yielding, and inward movement. Yang is associated the Philippines, pentjak silat in Malaysia, karate in Oki- with heat, activity, light, assertiveness, outward move- nawa, aikido in Japan, and capoeira in Brazil. For instance, a Benefits strong (yang) attack is taught to be met by a yin, or yielding, response. Martial arts cultivate an awareness Martial arts teach self-defense, and can improve and use of yin or passive qualities, which are ignored by confidence and self-esteem. Another major tial arts can improve balance, strength, stamina, flexibili- yin/yang concept used in martial arts is that the more one ty, and posture. They also enhance weight loss and im- becomes familiar with violence, the more one learns to prove muscle tone. Some martial arts, such as aikido, teach stress management, improve concentration, and teach peace as their ultimate lesson. Although there are hundreds of different martial Some teachers claim that martial arts can be used as spir- arts, many of them have more similarities than differ- itual practices, bringing balance, peace, and wisdom to ences. Martial arts are generally classified as soft or hard, inter- Description nal or external, yin or yang, but they all need to embrace Basic concepts of martial arts these complementary aspects. Hard arts Many martial arts utilize basic concepts of traditional such as karate focus on developing muscular power and Chinese philosophy. Qi is the fundamental life energy of speed, and the mastery of breaking and throwing tech- the universe. In the body, qi is the invisible vital force that niques delivered with devastating impact. All martial arts emphasize is now the general term for an entire group of Japanese breathing techniques.
Acupuncture for back pain There have been a large number of studies and several recent systematic reviews of 13 acupuncture for the treatment of low back pain (Table 1) cheap levitra plus 400mg amex. In 1998 buy 400mg levitra plus otc, Ernst and co-workers reviewed 12 studies of acupuncture for back pain and identified nine containing data that could be incorporated into a meta-analysis. These reviewers reported a significant advantage for acupuncture versus several comparison treatments. However, when the authors considered only the sham- or placebo-controlled studies, this advantage disappeared. They therefore concluded that there was insufficient evidence to determine whether acupuncture was superior to placebo for back pain. Because a variety of outcome measures were used, the authors decided against performing a meta- analysis and opted instead for a qualitative analysis. Findings were classified into four categories: strong, moderate, limited, or no evidence of effectiveness. The two studies of the highest quality showed no evidence of effectiveness for acupuncture. Furthermore, they found moderate evidence that acupuncture was no more effective than trigger point injection or transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and some evidence that it was no more effective than placebo or sham treatment. Both the real and sham acupuncture groups were substantially better than the group receiving physical therapy alone in terms of pain and disability, but no significant differences in pain or disability were found between these two groups either at the end of treatment or 9 months later. Complementary therapies in neurology 292 16 Carlsson and Sjolund randomized 50 patients with chronic back pain to conventional acupuncture, electroacupuncture, or mock TENS therapy (which they defined as placebo). Eight weekly treatments were administered, with two further treatments given over a 6-month period. Blinded observers also subjectively assessed patients after 1 month, 3 months and 6 months. They reported a long-term beneficial effect of needle acupuncture in comparison to placebo. Massage was better than self-education in terms of disability and symptoms at 10 weeks and better than acupuncture in terms of disability at 10 weeks and in terms of both symptoms and disability at 1 year.