By N. Silas. Alma College. 2017.
Although letters are short red viagra 200mg on line, they often take a surprising amount of time to write cheap 200 mg red viagra free shipping, hone, and perfect. Even so, the editorial committee may edit and shorten your letter even further. If your letter is too long, it may not be considered for publication at all and your message will not reach your audience. For example, 500 words or two pages is usually the maximum and this may include a figure or a table. The number of authors is also usually limited to a maximum of four to six, and the number of references is usually limited to less than five including a reference to the journal article to which the letter relates. A list of titles of letters from a single issue of BMJ is shown in Box 7. The topics are extremely varied and include comments on previous publications and news items, warnings about the safe disposal of old equipment, and the applicability of new treatment methods. The letters also include an educational note about a new website that is relevant to the health of over one billion people worldwide, and a comment on whether the term “coronary heart disease” is a tautology. Seven letters are printed under this heading plus a response from the authors. The letters editor comments that 51 responses were received of which 46 were openly critical. Title: Debate on screening for breast cancer is not over Purpose: To criticise the overinterpretation of a study which claimed a 63% reduction in breast cancer deaths in women screened. Title: Mercury sphygmomanometers: disposal has far-reaching consequences Purpose: To comment on the safe disposal of sphygmomanometers in response to an article about a trend away from their use. Title: Risks with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion can be serious Purpose: To point out that although a recent editorial advocated treatment with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in a small proportion of diabetics, the treatment has serious risks and should not be used by physicians inexperienced in pump therapy. Title: Islam with the internet could do much to prevent disease Purpose: To promote an internet course of lectures on health care for Islamic people. Title: “Coronary heart disease” is not tautologous Purpose: To debate appropriate terms to describe disease of the heart and coronary arteries. Most letters are written to offer criticism of a previous publication, although some offer support.
Resting VO2 amounts of carbohydrate and fatty acids being oxi- usually ranges between 0 buy red viagra 200 mg on-line. Resting and strenuous exer- cise values depend on metabolism and pulmonary function purchase red viagra 200 mg with amex, but resting values are less than VO. VENTILATORY EQUIVALENTS 2 Ventilatory equivalents (VE/VO2 and VE/VCO2) are unit- LACTIC ACID less numbers derived from the ratio of VE to VO2 and VCO2. VE/VO2 indicates the volume (L) of air required Lactate, a product of glycolysis, is formed from pyru- to use 1 L of O2 and VE/VCO2 indicates the appropriate- vate in the recycling of NAD (Fig. The increase in VE/VCO2 reflects respi- ISOTONIC/DYNAMIC CONTRACTIONS ratory compensation for rise in blood lactate. Specific types of dynamic contractions include concentric, MAXIMAL HEART RATE eccentric, and isokinetic. This is also known as test is not possible, then age-predicted heart-rate for- positive work. Two formulas used are: Maximal When the direction is reversed and the weight is low- HR = 220 – age or 208 – 0. More fast-twitch motor units are may be more accurate for older persons and is inde- activated during eccentric contractions. It is important to ISOKINETIC CONTRACTIONS note that an estimated maximal HR may be 5 to 10% Isokinetic machines make these contractions possible: (10 to 20 bpm) higher or lower than the actual value. The applied resist- influenced by body position and amount of muscle ance during the contraction is increased or lowered at mass involved. HEART RATE RESERVE Diagnostic strength equipment use isokinetic tension, so more accurate measures of strength can be made at The difference between maximal HR during maximal varying joint angles. If maximal HR is 205 bpm and resting HR is BORG SCALE OR RATING OF 55 bpm, then HRR would be 205 – 55 = 150 bpm. The PERCEIVED EXERTION smaller the difference, the lower the reserve and the narrower the range for exercising. The original Borg scale ranges from 6 to 20, with each number anchored Atraining program requires calculating a target heart range.